A program similar to spyware but its purpose is to force the display of advertisements on the infected computer.


A software designed to prevent, search for, detect, and remove software viruses, worms, trojans, spyware etc.

Encryption key

A number used with an algorithm to hash data in a way that can be "unhashed" only by using the same or a related number.

File lock

A method used legitimately to prevent potential errors when multiple programs try to access the same resources or critical files. This feature can be abused by spyware/adware to block its own removal.


  1. A program designed to block (unauthorized) access to specific ports or applications.
  2. A computer configured as a router which includes firewall software that can restrict access between the networks it manages.

Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

A computer or software that can identify malicious network activity and alert the administrators of this activity. Tripwire and Snort are two IDS that runs on Linux distributions.


An attack that can take several forms, although most begin with the receipt of a seemingly legitimate email. Over time they have evolved from a simple request via email for your personal and/ or financial information to today's more sophisticated attempts to install crimeware on your computer. .

Process injection

When a piece of adware/ spyware injects its code into a running program which allows it to bypass security restrictions, evade detection, make changes and self-regenerate even if its files are removed.


Unsolicited email messages.


A program that usually installs itself without user consent or with consent obtained in a misleading manner. Spyware monitor user activity and report this information, confidential or not, back to its controller.

Terminal program

  1. An interface used to run text-mode programs.
  2. A program used to create a serial communication between two computers, especially via a modem or RS - 232.

Trojan horse

Differs from a worm or virus only in that it doesn't replicate and the entire application is written to look like it's something else, when in fact it's an attack tool.


A malicious program attached to another program to execute unwanted functions on a computer. A virus normally requires a delivery mechanism such as an executable file attached to an email. The difference between a computer worm from a computer virus is that human interaction is required to facilitate the spread of a virus.


A flaw that is constitutional in every network and device.


A software that monitors for any changes to the files of the spyware. If the spyware/adware is terminated or has its files deleted or altered, the watchdog will restore and restart the spyware/adware.


Software that executes code and self-replicates in the memory of the infected workstation, which can, in turn, infect other hosts.

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